Part 1 of a mini-series of articles about science and stuff.
Yes, I'm a nerd.
let's get into the basic structure of DNA, nucleotides. Nucleotides are made up of 3 parts. Phosphate, Dexyribose Sugar, and 1 of 4 nitrogen bases. THe structure is similar to this:
The nitrogen bases are Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine. Thymine bonds with Adenine, and Guanine bonds with Cytosine. This is ALWAYS true.
These pairs construct the double helix shape we know as DNA. Now we will get into how the DNA replicates to grow and repair.
simply put, the double helix unwinds, so we have more of a ladder shape. Then, an enzyme called DNA helicase removes the nitrogen bonds in the nucleotides. We hen have something like this:
Now that the nucleotides are separate, another enzyme, DNA Polymerase, come by and adds complementary nucleotides. so basically, it is replacing the detached nucleotides with new nucleotides. so then, we have 2 identical strands of DNA, that rewind into double helix shapes.
and that, is DNA replication.